The protection of the forest aims to prevent and control the damages caused by diseases and wood deteriorating agents.
Diseases and deteriorating agents can be found in every ecosystem, which may be either latent or found in tiny centres of deteriorating agents controlled by silvicultural operations. The appearance and development of centres of deteriorating agents can lead to serious disorders in the forest ecosystem, where human intervention is indispensable. Important measures were taken recently to employ the integrative control methods on a large scale. Within the framework of the integrative control measures reducing the use of chemical, polluting substances, adopting mainly biological and biodegradable insecticides and selective fungicides, that would not have any damaging effect on humans and the useful entomofauna.
The actions taken for forest protection include the following operations:
- tracing and notifying deteriorating agents
- drawing up statistics of existing deteriorants
- producing prognosis and devising necessary contol methods according to the operation scheme
- carrying out control operations for diseases and deteriorants
The operations for forest protection are performed in order to maintain the appropriate fitosanitary conditions in the stands and young plantations. In the resinous stands the tracing and control of cambium insects is carried out on an annual basis, these operations reached to a surface of over 5.500 hectares in 2009. For cambium insect control trap trees and Atratyp pheromone traps were used. To avoid cutting down the healthy stands from 2009 the trap trees are no longer in use for tracing and controlling cambium insects.
During the years 2005 - 2007 windfalls, windbreaks and snowbreaks were produced at a very high rate (above 161 million ccm). These falls and breaks were rather massive at places they were nevertheless mostly dispersed.
In these cases the most important step was stocktaking and marking these products as soon as possible, respectively removing the timber from these forests in order to prevent the appearance and development of mass multiplication centres of the deteriorants.
The main deteriorants of resinous stands subject to windfall, windbreak and snowbreak are the bark beetles from the family of Ipidae (Ips typographus, Pityogenes chalcographus a.s.o.) that are lieing between the bark and the wood, a favourable place for development and multiplication. In the resinous stands the bark beetles primarily infest the fallen and broken stands that are still green and not removed from the forest.
If the affected stands are not removed in the first year, the dangers of infestation become more prominent in the following 2-3 years, when their number grows very high, the attacks expand even to the stands on foot causing their drying. The attack caused by these deteriorants consists of holes or galleries carved between the bark and the wood. Due to these attacks the timber becomes gradually fall in value, and in addition after the appearance of the xylophagous insects, through the penetration and development of fungi in the galleries of these species it will finally result in the decomposition of the wood.
From 2009 the Forest Administration of Gheorgheni wing pheromone traps are used to trace and contol the spruce beetles. Over 700 traps are purchased in general.
The working method consists of using synthetic substances identical with the ones emitted by the insects that attract the opposite sex of the same species.
The pheromone works in an area of 1km being more effective on a distance up to 20 m. The pheromone bait is made up of a plastic web or cellulose the attractant placed within it in a hermetically sealed, plastic transparent envelope, its commercial denomination being Atratyp, Atrachalc, and for the two deteriorants Ips typhographus and Pityogenes chalcographus. The pheromone traps are placed in bright respectively partially bright places. The pheromone traps are placed in bright respectively partially bright places. At the spheres of felling areas from the previous years clear cutting and on the surfaces of massive windfalls, the pheromone traps are placed along the skirts of the forest at a distance of 20-30 m respectively 10-20 from the outskirts. In the clumps of the trees attacked by the Ipidae, after cutting the stock, the pheromone traps are placed on the void surfaces created at a distance of 10 m from the healthy trees and their number depends on the number of trees attacked from every clump (the wing type pheromone traps stand for 5 trap trees). The pheromone traps last for approximately 6 weeks, therefore two pheromone baits are generally used. For capturing the Ips amitinus the Atrachalc baits are used, placed beside the Atratyp baits that are used to capture the Ips typographus (the Atrachalc is placed at each fifth Atratyp). The pheromone traps are placed at the end of April, beginning of May and are being checked from the time of their placement up to the 15th of septembre. In order to trace the depholiator Lymantria monacha, at the beginning of July Atralymon traps are placed in every forest that are checked two times a week until the 15th of septembre. For tracing and controlling the Hylobius abiatis in young plantations bark traps are used.