A managed forest cannot be abandoned after the establishment, a process of periodic monitoring and tending is required in order to reflect upon the continuity and the consequence of activities carried out in the forest management and to achieve the manager’s objectives and expectations at the same time.Stand tending and monitoring known as silvicultural operations are the major preoccupations of the silviculturist all through the durable forest management cicle. The susteinable management of the stands, the gains and losses can be assessed through the way the interventions are made, the results gained in some of the stands in 80 years time.
Tending operations and monitoring include:
- improvement of stand composition, structure and quality,
- adequate stand reduction to ensure good quality of the forest environment, the nutritional supply for the clear wood and their growth,
- improvement of inter and intraspecific ratio, both at the level of stands and of several vegetations,
- gradual improvement of forest environment in such a way as to intensify its protective and productive functions,
- harvesting and valuation of a supplementary quantity of timber as secondary products.
The efficiency of tending operations and that of monitoring can be assessed through the silvicutural and financial value of the forest when exploiting and not through the quantity of intermediary products gained along the time. Several operation methods are required by the relief conditions, provenance of species and the management objectives set alongside with a qualified staff.
From the time of stand establishment up to the beginning of regeneration measures for a new stand the following categories of tending operation are derived:
- tending operations for natural seedlings and plantations until establishing a dense stand (revision, weeding),
- tending operations after obtaining the dense stand (release cutting),
- special tending operations (cleaning, thinning, artificial pruning, brashing, dense stand border tending, access cutting a.s.o.).